Research Summary

Carolyn S. Calfee, MD MAS is Professor of Medicine and Anesthesia at the University of California, San Francisco, where she attends in the intensive care units. Her primary academic focus is the pathogenesis and treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current research projects include: (1) molecular subphenotypes of ARDS and precision medicine in critical care; (2) the role of environmental exposures including smoking, air pollution, and novel tobacco products in susceptibility to lung injury; and (3) novel treatments for ARDS. During the COVID-19 pandemic, she has been the UCSF clinical lead and steering committee member for the NIAID-funded Immunophenotyping Assessment in a COVID-19 Cohort (IMPACC) study and she is one of the lead PI’s for the ISPY COVID clinical trial, a Phase 2 platform clinical trial of novel treatments for COVID-19 associated ARDS.

Research Funding

  • January 16, 2018 - December 31, 2024 - Precision Medicine in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NHLBI, Sponsor Award ID: R35HL140026
  • July 15, 2016 - June 30, 2021 - ARDS Endotypes: Expanded Analysis of Clinical and Biological Phenotypes and Evolution Over Time, Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NHLBI, Sponsor Award ID: K24HL133390
  • March 15, 2016 - February 28, 2020 - Molecular Endotypes of ARDS: Identification, Biology, and Differential Response to Therapy, Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NHLBI, Sponsor Award ID: R01HL131621
  • September 19, 2013 - August 31, 2018 - Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation, Co-Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NCI, Sponsor Award ID: P50CA180890


Yale University, BA, 1991-1995, English
University of Pennsylvania, MD, 1995-1999, Medicine
University of California, San Francisco Internship/Residency, 1999-2002, Internal Medicine
University of California, San Francisco Chief Residency, 2002-2003, Internal Medicine
University of California, San Francisco Fellowship, 2003-2007, Pulmonary/Critical Care
University of California, San Francisco Masters in Clinical Research (expected), 2007-2009, Clinical Research

Honors & Awards

  • 1994
    Phi Beta Kappa, Yale University
  • 1995
    Bachelor of Arts awarded magna cum laude, with Distinction in the Major
  • 1998
    Alpha Omega Alpha, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
  • 1999
    Julia M. Glasgow Award, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
  • 1999
    Spencer Morris Prize, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
  • 2000
    Intern of the Year, University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine
  • 2005
    Walter Travel Award, American Lung Association
  • 2012
    Associate Scientific Advisor, Science Translational Medicine
  • 2013
    American Society for Clinical Investigation Young Physician-Scientist Award
  • 2013
    Highlighted abstract, 2013 American Thoracic Society International Conference (sr. author)
  • 2013
    Finalist, UCSF Pathways to Discovery Mentor Award

Selected Publications

  1. Dahmer MK, Yang G, Zhang M, Quasney MW, Sapru A, Weeks HM, Sinha P, Curley MAQ, Delucchi KL, Calfee CS, Flori H, RESTORE and BALI study investigators, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network. Identification of phenotypes in paediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a latent class analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Dec 06.  View on PubMed
  2. Sinha P, Spicer A, Delucchi KL, McAuley DF, Calfee CS, Churpek MM. Comparison of machine learning clustering algorithms for detecting heterogeneity of treatment effect in acute respiratory distress syndrome: A secondary analysis of three randomised controlled trials. EBioMedicine. 2021 Nov 30; 74:103697.  View on PubMed
  3. Furfaro D, Sinha P, Calfee CS, Brodie D, O'Donnell M. Reply to: Time to Tailor the One Size Fits All Approach? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 24.  View on PubMed
  4. Wick KD, McAuley DF, Levitt JE, Beitler JR, Annane D, Riviello ED, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Promises and challenges of personalized medicine to guide ARDS therapy. Crit Care. 2021 11 23; 25(1):404.  View on PubMed
  5. Neyton L, Calfee CS. Metabolic signatures of ARDS and ARDS heterogeneity. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2021 Oct 20.  View on PubMed
  6. Alipanah N, Calfee CS. Phenotyping in acute respiratory distress syndrome: state of the art and clinical implications. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2021 Oct 19.  View on PubMed
  7. Shah FA, Meyer NJ, Angus DC, Awdish R, Azoulay É, Calfee CS, Clermont G, Gordon AC, Kwizera A, Leligdowicz A, Marshall JC, Mikacenic C, Sinha P, Venkatesh B, Wong HR, Zampieri FG, Yende S. A Research Agenda for Precision Medicine in Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Oct 15; 204(8):891-901.  View on PubMed
  8. Tran A, Fernando SM, Brochard LJ, Fan E, Inaba K, Ferguson ND, Calfee CS, Burns KEA, Brodie D, McCredie VA, Kim DY, Kyeremanteng K, Lampron J, Slutsky AS, Combes A, Rochwerg B. Prognostic factors for development of acute respiratory distress syndrome following traumatic injury - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2021 Oct 08.  View on PubMed
  9. Mikacenic C, Bhatraju P, Robinson-Cohen C, Kosamo S, Fohner AE, Dmyterko V, Long SA, Cerosaletti K, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Walley KR, Russell JA, Christie JD, Meyer NJ, Christiani DC, Wurfel MM. Single Nucleotide Variant in FAS Associates With Organ Failure and Soluble Fas Cell Surface Death Receptor in Critical Illness. Crit Care Med. 2021 Sep 29.  View on PubMed
  10. Sinha P, Furfaro D, Cummings MJ, Abrams D, Delucchi K, Maddali MV, He J, Thompson A, Murn M, Fountain J, Rosen A, Robbins-Juarez SY, Adan MA, Satish T, Madhavan M, Gupta A, Lyashchenko AK, Agerstrand C, Yip NH, Burkart KM, Beitler JR, Baldwin MR, Calfee CS, Brodie D, O'Donnell MR. Latent Class Analysis Reveals COVID-19-related ARDS Subgroups with Differential Responses to Corticosteroids. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Sep 20.  View on PubMed
  11. Urner M, Calfee CS, Fan E. Titrating Oxygen Therapy in Critically Ill Patients. JAMA. 2021 09 14; 326(10):911-913.  View on PubMed
  12. Weiner J, Suwalski P, Holtgrewe M, Rakitko A, Thibeault C, Müller M, Patriki D, Quedenau C, Krüger U, Ilinsky V, Popov I, Balnis J, Jaitovich A, Helbig ET, Lippert LJ, Stubbemann P, Real LM, Macías J, Pineda JA, Fernandez-Fuertes M, Wang X, Karadeniz Z, Saccomanno J, Doehn JM, Hübner RH, Hinzmann B, Salvo M, Blueher A, Siemann S, Jurisic S, Beer JH, Rutishauser J, Wiggli B, Schmid H, Danninger K, Binder R, Corman VM, Mühlemann B, Arjun Arkal R, Fragiadakis GK, Mick E, Comet C, Calfee CS, Erle DJ, Hendrickson CM, Kangelaris KN, Krummel MF, Woodruff PG, Langelier CR, Venkataramani U, García F, Zyla J, Drosten C, Alice B, Jones TC, Suttorp N, Witzenrath M, Hippenstiel S, Zemojtel T, Skurk C, Wolfgang P, Borodina T, Pa-Covid SG, Ripke S, Sander LE, Beule D, Landmesser U, Guettouche T, Kurth F, Heidecker B. Increased risk of severe clinical course of COVID-19 in carriers of HLA-C*04:01. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Sep 02; 101099.  View on PubMed
  13. Sarma A, Christenson SA, Byrne A, Mick E, Pisco AO, DeVoe C, Deiss T, Ghale R, Zha BS, Tsitsiklis A, Jauregui A, Moazed F, Detweiler AM, Spottiswoode N, Sinha P, Neff N, Tan M, Serpa PH, Willmore A, Ansel KM, Wilson JG, Leligdowicz A, Siegel ER, Sirota M, DeRisi JL, Matthay MA, COMET Consortium , Hendrickson CM, Kangelaris KN, Krummel MF, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ, Calfee CS, Langelier CR. Tracheal aspirate RNA sequencing identifies distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS. Nat Commun. 2021 08 26; 12(1):5152.  View on PubMed
  14. van der Wijst MGP, Vazquez SE, Hartoularos GC, Bastard P, Grant T, Bueno R, Lee DS, Greenland JR, Sun Y, Perez R, Ogorodnikov A, Ward A, Mann SA, Lynch KL, Yun C, Havlir DV, Chamie G, Marquez C, Greenhouse B, Lionakis MS, Norris PJ, Dumont LJ, Kelly K, Zhang P, Zhang Q, Gervais A, Le Voyer T, Whatley A, Si Y, Byrne A, Combes AJ, Rao AA, Song YS, Fragiadakis GK, Kangelaris K, Calfee CS, Erle DJ, Hendrickson C, Krummel MF, Woodruff PG, Langelier CR, Casanova JL, Derisi JL, Anderson MS, Ye CJ, UCSF COMET consortium . Type I interferon autoantibodies are associated with systemic immune alterations in patients with COVID-19. Sci Transl Med. 2021 09 22; 13(612):eabh2624.  View on PubMed
  15. Combes AJ, Courau T, Kuhn NF, Hu KH, Ray A, Chen WS, Chew NW, Cleary SJ, Kushnoor D, Reeder GC, Shen A, Tsui J, Hiam-Galvez KJ, Muñoz-Sandoval P, Zhu WS, Lee DS, Sun Y, You R, Magnen M, Rodriguez L, Im KW, Serwas NK, Leligdowicz A, Zamecnik CR, Loudermilk RP, Wilson MR, Ye CJ, Fragiadakis GK, Looney MR, Chan V, Ward A, Carrillo S, UCSF COMET Consortium , Matthay M, Erle DJ, Woodruff PG, Langelier C, Kangelaris K, Hendrickson CM, Calfee C, Rao AA, Krummel MF. Publisher Correction: Global absence and targeting of protective immune states in severe COVID-19. Nature. 2021 Aug; 596(7872):E8.  View on PubMed
  16. Rogers AJ, Leligdowicz A, Contrepois K, Jauregui A, Vessel K, Deiss TJ, Belzer A, Liu T, Lippi M, Ke S, Ross E, Zhou H, Hendrickson C, Gomez A, Sinha P, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Plasma Metabolites in Early Sepsis Identify Distinct Clusters Defined by Plasma Lipids. Crit Care Explor. 2021 Aug; 3(8):e0478.  View on PubMed
  17. Beitler JR, Thompson BT, Baron RM, Bastarache JA, Denlinger LC, Esserman L, Gong MN, LaVange LM, Lewis RJ, Marshall JC, Martin TR, McAuley DF, Meyer NJ, Moss M, Reineck LA, Rubin E, Schmidt EP, Standiford TJ, Ware LB, Wong HR, Aggarwal NR, Calfee CS. Advancing precision medicine for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Jul 23.  View on PubMed
  18. Sinha P, Delucchi KL, Chen Y, Zhuo H, Abbott J, Wang C, Wickersham N, McNeil JB, Jauregui A, Ke S, Vessel K, Gomez A, Hendrickson CM, Kangelaris KN, Sarma A, Leligdowicz A, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Ware LB, Calfee CS. Latent class analysis-derived subphenotypes are generalisable to observational cohorts of acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective study. Thorax. 2021 Jul 12.  View on PubMed
  19. Meyer NJ, Gattinoni L, Calfee CS. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet. 2021 08 14; 398(10300):622-637.  View on PubMed
  20. Dutra Silva J, Su Y, Calfee CS, Delucchi KL, Weiss D, McAuley DF, O'Kane C, Krasnodembskaya AD. Mesenchymal stromal cell extracellular vesicles rescue mitochondrial dysfunction and improve barrier integrity in clinically relevant models of ARDS. Eur Respir J. 2021 07; 58(1).  View on PubMed

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