University of California San Francisco
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
Robert Bok, MD, PhD

Robert Bok, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, UCSF

Cancer Center Program Memberships

Prostate Cancer

Research Summary

Robert Bok, MD, PhD, is an Associate Adjunct Professor in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and the Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Bok obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1984, and he earned his MD in Medicine from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore in 1989. He completed his residency in Internal Medicine from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1992, followed by a fellowship in Hematology-Oncology from UCSF in 1996.

At the UCSF Mission Bay Surbeck Laboratory, Dr. Bok provides physician coverage for research on MRI/MRSI scans performed on patients. Dr. Bok’s research activities focuses on the development of better molecular imaging methods for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer. His primary interest is on the use of pre-clinical animal models to improve recent advances in MRSI for prostate cancer. This includes hyperpolarized carbon-13 techniques, high-resolution magic angle spectroscopy, and the use of novel nanoparticles. Dr. Bok and his colleagues are also investigating the use of hyperpolarized 13C-pryuvate in a transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer known as Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP).

Dr. Bok is a current member of the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, the CALGB, the Association of Northern California Oncologists, the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and the World Molecular Imaging Society. He has 60 published science articles and he has written 53 peer-reviewed articles and 90 abstracts.

Expertise:

Oncology

Specialty:

Prostate cancer, TRAMP, nanoparticles

Professional Interests:

Prostate cancer, urologic oncology, molecular imaging, hyperpolarized carbon-13 spectroscopy, high-resolution magic-angle spin spectroscopy, transgenic cancer models, extracellular proteases, metastases, molecular biomarkers

Education and Training:

• Medical School: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore - Medicine

• Internship: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine

• Residency: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine

• Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Hematology-Oncology

• Doctor of Philosophy: University of Illinois, Urbana - Biochemistry

• Medical License, State of California

• ABIM, Board Certification in Internal Medicine

• ABIM, Board Certification in Medical Oncology

• ACLS Certification

Education

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN, B.S., 1980, Biology and Chemistry
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL, Ph.D., 1984, Biochemistry
John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, M.D., 1989, Medicine
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, Residency, 1992, Internal Medicine
University of California, San Francisco, Fellow, 1996, Hematology-Oncology


Professional Experience

  • 1980-84
    Biochemical studies on the regulation of plasminogen activation by fibrin and lysine-binding sites, University of Illinois, Biochemistry Department. Advisor: Walter Mangel, Ph.D.- As Graduate Student
  • 1984-85
    Studies on the distribution of ubiquitin, a regulator of intracellular proteolysis, in biological systems, St. Jude Children's Research hospital, Memphis, TN. Advisor: Victor Fried, Ph.D. -- as Post-Doc
  • 1985-86
    Summer research project on evaluation of small molecule serine protease inhibitor in cell culture system, Children's Hospital, university of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Advisor: Walter Laug, M.D. -- as Medical Student
  • 1987
    Research elective studying inhibition of tumor angiogensis by the antibiotic minocycline, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Brain Tumor Lab, Baltimore MD. Advisor: Henry Brem, M.D. -- as Medical Student
  • 1988
    Research elective investigating serum of patients with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) for potential anti-endothelial cell auto-antibodies, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Hematology Division, Baltimore, MD. Advisor: William Bell M.D. -- As Medical Student
  • 1990
    Research honors rotation studying the effect of HSB on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -- 1 (PAI-1) expression by endothelal Cells, University of Minnesota, Hematology Division, Dept. of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN. Advisor: Greg Vercellotti, M.D. -- As Medical Resident
  • 1992-96
    Isolation and characterization of genomic fragments of the murine beta3 integrin gene for purposes of homologous recombination, Hematology-Oncology Division, Univ. of Calif., San Francisco. Advisor: Marc Shuman, M.D. -- As Hematology-Oncology Fellow
  • 1996-98
    Characterization of integrins in basal cells of prostatic epithelium; Targeting of recombinant proteins to platelet granules via Dodecapeptide sequence, Hem.-Onc. Div., UCSF. Advisor: Marc Shuman, M.D. -- As Visiting Post-Doc
  • 1998-2000
    Clinical Instructor, Urological Oncology Program, UCSF/Mt. Zion Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA. Assistant Clinical Professor appointment pending. Establishment of TRAMP transgenic mouse colony and protease expression analysis in conjunction with the Protease Project Group at UCSF.

Selected Publications

  1. Gordon JW, Autry AW, Tang S, Graham JY, Bok RA, Zhu X, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Li Y, Ohilger MA, Abraham MR, Xu D, Vigneron DB, Larson PEZ. A variable resolution approach for improved acquisition of hyperpolarized 13 C metabolic MRI. Magn Reson Med. 2020 Jul 22.
    View on PubMed
  2. Autry AW, Gordon JW, Chen HY, LaFontaine M, Bok R, Van Criekinge M, Slater JB, Carvajal L, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Chang SM, Clarke JL, Lupo JM, Xu D, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB, Li Y. Characterization of serial hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging in patients with glioma. Neuroimage Clin. 2020 Jun 24; 27:102323.
    View on PubMed
  3. Mikrogeorgiou A, Chen Y, Lee BS, Bok R, Sheldon RA, Barkovich AJ, Xu D, Ferriero DM. A Metabolomics Study of Hypoxia Ischemia during Mouse Brain Development Using Hyperpolarized 13C. Dev Neurosci. 2020 Jun 22; 1-10.
    View on PubMed
  4. Chen HY, Autry AW, Brender JR, Kishimoto S, Krishna MC, Vareth M, Bok RA, Reed GD, Carvajal L, Gordon JW, van Criekinge M, Korenchan DE, Chen AP, Xu D, Li Y, Chang SM, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB. Tensor image enhancement and optimal multichannel receiver combination analyses for human hyperpolarized 13 C MRSI. Magn Reson Med. 2020 Jun 05.
    View on PubMed
  5. Qin H, Zhang V, Bok RA, Santos RD, Cunha JA, Hsu IC, Santos Bs JD, Lee JE, Sukumar S, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB, Wilson DM, Sriram R, Kurhanewicz J. Simultaneous Metabolic and Perfusion Imaging Using Hyperpolarized 13C MRI Can Evaluate Early and Dose-Dependent Response to Radiation Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Mouse Model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2020 Apr 25.
    View on PubMed
  6. Sriram R, Van Criekinge M, DeLos Santos J, Ahamed F, Qin H, Nolley R, Santos RD, Tabatabai ZL, Bok RA, Keshari KR, Vigneron DB, Peehl DM, Kurhanewicz J. Elevated Tumor Lactate and Efflux in High-grade Prostate Cancer demonstrated by Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Prostate Tissue Slice Cultures. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Feb 26; 12(3).
    View on PubMed
  7. Tang S, Bok R, Qin H, Reed G, VanCriekinge M, Delos Santos R, Overall W, Santos J, Gordon J, Wang ZJ, Vigneron DB, Larson PEZ. A metabolite-specific 3D stack-of-spiral bSSFP sequence for improved lactate imaging in hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate studies on a 3T clinical scanner. Magn Reson Med. 2020 Sep; 84(3):1113-1125.
    View on PubMed
  8. Chen HY, Aggarwal R, Bok RA, Ohliger MA, Zhu Z, Lee P, Gordon JW, van Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Slater JB, Larson PEZ, Small EJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI detects real-time metabolic flux in prostate cancer metastases to bone and liver: a clinical feasibility study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2020 Jun; 23(2):269-276.
    View on PubMed
  9. Korenchan DE, Bok R, Sriram R, Liu K, Santos RD, Qin H, Lobach I, Korn N, Wilson DM, Kurhanewicz J, Flavell RR. Hyperpolarized in vivo pH imaging reveals grade-dependent acidification in prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2019 Oct 22; 10(58):6096-6110.
    View on PubMed
  10. Chung BT, Chen HY, Gordon J, Mammoli D, Sriram R, Autry AW, Le Page LM, Chaumeil MM, Shin P, Slater J, Tan CT, Suszczynski C, Chang S, Li Y, Bok RA, Ronen SM, Larson PEZ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. First hyperpolarized [2-13C]pyruvate MR studies of human brain metabolism. J Magn Reson. 2019 12; 309:106617.
    View on PubMed
  11. Wang S, Korenchan DE, Perez PM, Taglang C, Hayes TR, Sriram R, Bok R, Hong AS, Wu Y, Li H, Wang Z, Kurhanewicz J, Wilson DM, Flavell RR. Amino Acid-Derived Sensors for Specific Zn2+ Detection Using Hyperpolarized 13 C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Chemistry. 2019 Sep 12; 25(51):11842-11846.
    View on PubMed
  12. Mammoli D, Gordon J, Autry A, Larson PEZ, Li Y, Chen HY, Chung B, Shin P, Van Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Slater JB, Bok R, Crane J, Xu D, Chang S, Vigneron DB. Kinetic Modeling of Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Pyruvate Metabolism in the Human Brain. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2020 02; 39(2):320-327.
    View on PubMed
  13. Korenchan DE, Gordon JW, Subramaniam S, Sriram R, Baligand C, VanCriekinge M, Bok R, Vigneron DB, Wilson DM, Larson PEZ, Kurhanewicz J, Flavell RR. Using bidirectional chemical exchange for improved hyperpolarized [13 C]bicarbonate pH imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2019 09; 82(3):959-972.
    View on PubMed
  14. Wang ZJ, Ohliger MA, Larson PEZ, Gordon JW, Bok RA, Slater J, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Hess CP, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized 13C MRI: State of the Art and Future Directions. Radiology. 2019 05; 291(2):273-284.
    View on PubMed
  15. Bok R, Lee J, Sriram R, Keshari K, Sukumar S, Daneshmandi S, Korenchan DE, Flavell RR, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Seth P. The Role of Lactate Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression and Metastases Revealed by Dual-Agent Hyperpolarized 13C MRSI. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Feb 22; 11(2).
    View on PubMed
  16. Chen HY, Gordon JW, Bok RA, Cao P, von Morze C, van Criekinge M, Milshteyn E, Carvajal L, Hurd RE, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Larson PEZ. Pulse sequence considerations for quantification of pyruvate-to-lactate conversion kPL in hyperpolarized 13 C imaging. NMR Biomed. 2019 03; 32(3):e4052.
    View on PubMed
  17. Gordon JW, Chen HY, Autry A, Park I, Van Criekinge M, Mammoli D, Milshteyn E, Bok R, Xu D, Li Y, Aggarwal R, Chang S, Slater JB, Ferrone M, Nelson S, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB. Translation of Carbon-13 EPI for hyperpolarized MR molecular imaging of prostate and brain cancer patients. Magn Reson Med. 2019 04; 81(4):2702-2709.
    View on PubMed
  18. Zhu X, Gordon JW, Bok RA, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ. Dynamic diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 13 C imaging based on a slice-selective double spin echo sequence for measurements of cellular transport. Magn Reson Med. 2019 03; 81(3):2001-2010.
    View on PubMed
  19. Larson PEZ, Chen HY, Gordon JW, Korn N, Maidens J, Arcak M, Tang S, Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Mammoli D, Bok R, Aggarwal R, Ferrone M, Slater JB, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Investigation of analysis methods for hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate metabolic MRI in prostate cancer patients. NMR Biomed. 2018 11; 31(11):e3997.
    View on PubMed
  20. Tang S, Milshteyn E, Reed G, Gordon J, Bok R, Zhu X, Zhu Z, Vigneron DB, Larson PEZ. A regional bolus tracking and real-time B1 calibration method for hyperpolarized 13 C MRI. Magn Reson Med. 2019 02; 81(2):839-851.
    View on PubMed

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