University of California San Francisco
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center

Tobacco Biomarkers Appendices


Selected References

Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rd, Ahijevych K, Jarvis MJ, Hall S, LeHouezec J, Hansson A, Lichtenstein E, Henningfield J, Tsoh J, Hurt RD, and Velicer W. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine Tob. Res. 4:149-159, 2002.

Jarvis, MJ, Primatesta, P, Erens, B, Feyerabend, C, and Bryant, A. Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates. Nicotine Tob Res, 5:349-55, 2003.

Benowitz, NL Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Epidemiol. Rev., 18:188-204, 1996.

Eisner MD, Balmes J, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Hammond SK, Benowitz N, Blanc PD. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes. BMC Pulm Med. 2006, 6:12

Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob, P 3rd, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF and Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 76:64-72, 2004.

Lerman, C, Tyndale, R, Patterson, F, Wileyto, EP, Shields, PG, Pinto, A, and Benowitz, N. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 79:600-8, 2006.

Jacob, P 3rd, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L and Benowitz NL. Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers. Prev., 11:1668-1673, 2002.

Hecht, SS. Human urinary carcinogen metabolites: biomarkers for investigating tobacco and cancer. Carcinogenesis, 23:907-22, 2002.

Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Lindgren B, Jacob P 3rd, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 16:1382-6, 2007.

Eisner, MD, Jacob, P, 3rd, Benowitz, NL, Balmes, J, Blanc, PD. Longer-term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) Nicotine Tob Res, in press 2009.

Jacob P 3rd, Havel C, Lee DH, Yu L, Eisner MD, Benowitz NL. Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 80:8115-21, 2008.

Jacob P 3rd, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 79:587-98, 2007.

Jacob, P 3rd, Wu S, Yu L and Benowitz NL. Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 23:653-661, 2000.

Al-Delaimy, WK. Hair as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke. Tob Control, 11:176-82, 2002.

Additional Resources
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