University of California San Francisco
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
Hai-Yen Sung, PhD

Hai-Yen Sung, PhD

Adjunct Professor, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California at San Francisco

Cancer Center Program Memberships

Tobacco Control

Research Summary

I am Professor of Health Economics at the Institute for Health & Aging and the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at UCSF. My research areas include: (1) economic cost of smoking, other tobacco use, and secondhand smoke exposure; (2) economic evaluation of cigarette taxes and other tobacco control policies; and (3) cost of cancer and other illnesses. I have substantial experience in developing econometric models and analytical methodologies on the evaluation of tobacco control policy and the estimation of economic cost of smoking. I have expanded my cost-of-smoking research to low- or middle-income countries including China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Tanzania, as well as vulnerable sub-population such as African Americans, Hispanics, and persons with mental illness. I am a co-investigator of a recently completed study that estimated the costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in 2009 for each of 58 counties in California. This is the third in a series of studies on the cost of smoking in California that my research team has conducted every 10 years since 1989. Our county-level cost of smoking estimates have been widely used by policymakers, legislators, and tobacco control advocates in California, where many policies are made at the local level. I have recently completed a study that estimated the mortality and healthcare costs of lung cancer attributable to smoking among African Americans in the US. Currently, I am a PI of an ongoing three-year project that evaluates the impact of tobacco tax policy on cigarette smoking behaviors and quitting behaviors among African Americans, and assesses whether tobacco tax increases are regressive to the African American community in California. I am also a co-investigator of five ongoing research projects, one of which is a large five-year UCSF Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science Center (TCORS) Grant funded by NIH/FDA to estimate the healthcare costs attributable to different tobacco product uses such as menthol cigarettes, cigars, snuff, and chewing tobacco. My research work in the economic cost of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and the economic impact of tobacco control policies is highly relevant to the development of tailored tobacco prevention and intervention policies to further reduce the burden of tobacco use and, consequently, the burden of cancer, because tobacco use is the most important risk factor for cancer.


National Taiwan University, Taiwan, BA, 1977, Economics
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, MA, 1980, Economics
University of California, Berkeley, CA, Ph.D., 1992, Agriculture & Resource Economics
University of California, Berkeley, CA, Postdoc, 1994, Health Economics

Professional Experience

  • 1978-1980
    Teaching Assistant, Department of Economics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
  • 1980-1981
    Programmer, System Architects, Inc., Falls Church, VA
  • 1982-1985
    Research Assistant, Department of Agriculture & Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA
  • 1986-1987
    Consultant, Robbins and Associates, Berkeley, CA
  • 1987-1990
    Research Assistant, Research Program in Health Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA
  • 1991-1992
    Research Associate, Institute of Business & Economic Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA
  • 1994
    Consultant, Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA
  • 1994-2001
    Consultant & Senior Data Consultant, Department of Quality & Utilization, and Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, CA
  • 2001-2003
    Research Specialist, Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA
  • 2003-2010
    Associate Adjunct Professor, Institute for Health & Aging and the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA
  • 2010-present
    Adjunct Professor, Institute for Health & Aging and the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA

Honors & Awards

  • 1974-1976
    Presidential Awards, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
  • 1993-1994
    National Institute on Aging Postdoctoral Fellowship, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA
  • 1994
    RAND Summer Institute Fellowship in Demography, Economics, and Epidemiology of Aging, Santa Monica, CA (NIA, Michigan-RAND 1994 Summer Institute Demography of Aging)

Selected Publications

  • Hu TW, Bai J, Keeler TE, Barnett PG, Sung HY. The impact of 1989 California Proposition 99: a major anti-smoking legislation on cigarette consumption. Journal of Public Health Policy, 15(1):26-36, 1994.
  • Scheffler RM., Clement DG, Sullivan SD, Hu TW, Sung HY. The hospital response to Medicare's Prospective Payment System: an econometric model of Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans. Medical Care, 32(5):471-485, 1994.
  • Sung HY, Hu TW, Keeler TE. Cigarette taxation and demand: an empirical model. Contemporary Economic Policy, 12(3):91-100, 1994.
  • Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE. The state antismoking campaign and the industry response: the effects of advertising on cigarette consumption in California. American Economic Review, 85(2):85-90, 1995.
  • Hu TW, Keeler TE, Sung HY, Barnett PG. The impact of California anti-smoking legislation on cigarette sales, consumption, and prices. Tobacco Control, 4(suppl 1): S34-S38, 1995.
  • Hu TW, Sung TW, Keeler TE. Reducing cigarette consumption in California: tobacco taxes vs an anti-smoking media campaign. American Journal of Public Health, 85(9):1218-1222, 1995. PMCID: PMC1615589
  • Keeler TE, Hu TW, Barnett PG, Manning WG, Sung HY. Do cigarette producers price-discriminate by state? An empirical analysis of local cigarette pricing and taxation. Journal of Health Economics, 15(4):499-512, 1996.
  • Hoffman C, Rice D, Sung HY. Persons with chronic conditions. Their prevalence and costs. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 276(18):1473-1479, 1996.
  • Kinney W, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Sawaya G, Hiatt RA. Missed opportunities for cervical cancer screening of HMO members developing invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Gynecologic Oncology, 71(3):428-430, 1998.
  • Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Kinney W, Sawaya GF, Hiatt RA. Papanicolaou smear history and diagnosis of invasive carcinoma among members of a large prepaid health plan. Cancer, 88(10):2283-9, 2000.
  • Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE, Marciniak M. Cigarette consumption and sales of nicotine replacement products. Tobacco Control, 9(Suppl 2):ii60-ii63, 2000. PMCID: PMC1766286
  • Keeler TE, Hu TW, Manning WG, Sung HY. State tobacco taxation, education and smoking: controlling for the effects of omitted variables. National Tax Journal, 54(1):83-102, March 2001.
  • Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Kinney W, Hiatt RA, Mandelblatt J. Advancing age and cervical cancer screening and prognosis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49(11):1499-1504, 2001.
  • Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Michel M, Breuer W, Zhang X. The economic burden of prostate cancer, California, 1998. Cancer, 94(11):2906-2913, 2002.
  • Max W, Sinnott P, Kao C, Sung HY, Rice DP. The burden of osteoporosis in California, 1998. Osteoporosis International, 13(6):493-500, 2002.
  • Keeler TE, Hu TW, Keith A, Manning R, Marciniak MD, Ong M, Sung HY. The benefits of switching smoking cessation drugs to over-the-counter status. Health Economics, 11(5):389-402, 2002.
  • Miller MG, Sung HY, Sawaya GF, Kearney KA, Kinney W, Hiatt RA. Screening interval and risk of invasive squamous cell cervical cancer. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 101(1): 29-37, 2003.
  • Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Michel M, Breuer W, Zhang X. The economic burden of gynecologic cancers in California, 1998. Gynecologic Oncology, 88(2):96-103, 2003.
  • Tsai YW, Sung HY, Yang CL, Shih SF. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan. Tobacco Control, 12(1):28-33, 2003. PMCID: PMC1759094
  • Kinney W, Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Hiatt RA. Stage at diagnosis and mortality in patients with adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed as a consequence of cytologic screening. Acta Cytologica, 47(2):167-171, 2003.
  • Chan PG, Sung HY, Sawaya GF. Changes in cervical cancer incidence after 3 decades of screening U.S. women under age 30 years. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 102(4): 765-773, 2003.
  • Sheu ML, Hu TW, Keeler TE, Ong M, Sung HY. The effect of a major cigarette price change on smoking behavior in California: a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Health Economics, 13(8): 781-791, 2004.
  • Keeler TE, Hu TW, Ong M, Sung HY. The U.S. national tobacco settlement: the effects of advertising and price changes on cigarette consumption. Applied Economics, 36(15): 1623-1629, 2004.
  • Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Zhang X, Miller L. The economic burden of smoking in California. Tobacco Control, 13(3): 264-267, 2004. PMCID: PMC1747911
  • Sung HY, Hu TW, Ong M, Keeler TE, Sheu ML. A major state tobacco tax increase, the national tobacco settlement, and cigarette consumption: the California experience. American Journal of Public Health, 95(6): 1030-1035, 2005. PMCID: PMC1449304
  • Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kinney W, Kearney KA, Miller MG, Hiatt RA. Cervical cancer after multiple negative cytologic tests in long-term members of a prepaid health plan. Acta Cytologica, 49(4): 391-397, 2005.
  • Sung HY, Wang L, Jin S, Hu TW, Jiang Y. Economic burden of smoking in China, 2000. Tobacco Control, 15(Suppl 1): i5-11, 2006. PMCID: PMC2563547
  • John RM, Sung HY, Max W. Economic cost of tobacco use in India, 2004. Tobacco Control, 18(2): 138-143, 2009. Epub 2009 Jan 8. PMCID: PMC2655042
  • Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Who is Exposed to Secondhand Smoke? Self-Reported and Serum Cotinine Measured Exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(5): 1633-1648; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051633 (OPEN ACCESS), 2009. PMCID: PMC2697933
  • Max W, Sung HY, Stark B. The economic burden of breast cancer in California. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 116(1):201-207, 2009.
  • Max W, Sung HY, Tucker LY, Stark B. The Disproportionate Cost of Smoking for African Americans in California. American Journal of Public Health,100(1):152–158, 2010.
  • Miller LS, Max W, Sung HY, Rice D, Zaretsky M. Evaluation of the economic impact of California’s Tobacco Control Program: a dynamic model approach. Tobacco Control, 19(Suppl 1): i68-76, 2010.
  • Ong MK, Zhou Q, Sung HY. Sensitivity to Cigarette Prices among Individuals with Alcohol, Drug, or Mental Disorders. American Journal of Public Health, May 13, 2010.
  • Max W, Sung HY, Tucker LY, Stark B. The Cost of Smoking for California's Hispanic Community. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntq245, 2011.
  • John RM, Sung HY, Max W, Ross H. Counting 15 Million More Poor in India, Thanks to Tobacco. Tobacco Control tc.2010.040089Published Online First: 3 February 2011
  • Yang L, Sung HY, Mao Z, Hu TW, Rao K. Economic Costs Attributable to Smoking in China: Update and an 8-year Comparison, 2000-2008. Tobacco Control. In press.