Research Summary

I am Professor of Medicine and Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and Chief of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at San Francisco General Hospital. With over 500 publications, I am a leading authority on the human pharmacology of nicotine and nicotine addiction. My laboratory also is a leading site for biomarker assessment of tobacco toxicant exposure. I am former president of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT), and the recipient of the Ove Ferno SRNT Award for Clinical Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. I have been a contributing author or editor to six US Surgeon General's Reports on tobacco including the 2010 Surgeon General's Report—How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease.

Research Funding

  • August 15, 2018 - July 31, 2020 - Cigarette Harm Reduction with Scheduled Electronic Cigarette Use, Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NIDA, Sponsor Award ID: U01DA045519
  • September 1, 1999 - June 30, 2020 - Drug Dependence Clinical Research Program, Co-Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NIDA, Sponsor Award ID: P30DA012393
  • July 1, 1977 - June 30, 2020 - Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Action and Pharmacogenetics, Co-Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NIGMS, Sponsor Award ID: T32GM007546
  • April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2019 - Technology Innovations for Supporting Health in Alaska Native People, Co-Principal Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NHLBI, Sponsor Award ID: R01HL117736


Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY, MD, 1969, Medicine
Bronx Municipal Hospital Center, Bronx, New York, Intern and Resident, Internal Medicine, 1969-1971
Fellow in Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 1971-1972

Honors & Awards

  • Oscar B. Hunter Award
  • Ove Ferno Award
  • 2002
  • UCSF Annual Distinguished Clinical Research Lecturer
  • Rawls Palmer Award for Progress in Medicine
  • Alton Ochsner Award Relating Smoking and Health
  • 1994-2002
  • NIDA Merit Award
  • American Board of Internal Medicine (Diplomate, 1968)
  • American Board of Medical Toxicology
  • American Board of Clinical Pharmacology
  • American Federation for Clinical Research (President 1996 to 1997)
  • American Society for Clinical Inves-tigation
  • American Society of Clinical Pharma-cology and Therapeutics
  • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  • Association of American Physicians
  • Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (President, 1996-1997)

Selected Publications

  1. El-Boraie A, Tanner JA, Zhu AZX, Claw KG, Prasad B, Schuetz EG, Thummel KE, Fukunaga K, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Tyndale RF. Functional Characterization Of Novel Rare CYP2A6 Variants And Potential Implications For Clinical Outcomes. Clin Transl Sci. 2021 Sep 03.  View on PubMed
  2. Balfour DJK, Benowitz NL, Colby SM, Hatsukami DK, Lando HA, Leischow SJ, Lerman C, Mermelstein RJ, Niaura R, Perkins KA, Pomerleau OF, Rigotti NA, Swan GE, Warner KE, West R. Balancing Consideration of the Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarettes. Am J Public Health. 2021 Aug 19; e1-e12.  View on PubMed
  3. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Liakoni E. Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Implications for Benefits and Risks in the Promotion of the Combusted Tobacco Endgame. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Aug; 61 Suppl 2:S18-S36.  View on PubMed
  4. Palmer AM, Toll BA, Carpenter MJ, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Rojewski AM, Smith TT, Sofuoglu M, Thrul J, Benowitz NL. Reappraising Choice in Addiction: Novel Conceptualizations and Treatments for Tobacco Use Disorder. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 Jul 16.  View on PubMed
  5. Liakoni E, Tyndale RF, Jacob P, Dempsey DA, Addo N, Benowitz NL. Effect of race and glucuronidation rates on the relationship between nicotine metabolite ratio and nicotine clearance. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2021 07 01; 31(5):97-107.  View on PubMed
  6. Shi L, Hatsukami DK, Koopmeiners JS, Le CT, Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Luo X. A mixed effects model for analyzing area under the curve of longitudinally measured biomarkers with missing data. Pharm Stat. 2021 Jun 20.  View on PubMed
  7. Liu J, Benowitz NL, Hatsukami DK, Havel CM, Lazcano-Ponce E, Strasser AA, Jacob P. 3-Ethenylpyridine Measured in Urine of Active and Passive Smokers: A Promising Biomarker and Toxicological Implications. Chem Res Toxicol. 2021 Jun 21; 34(6):1630-1639.  View on PubMed
  8. Beard E, Jackson SE, Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, Aubin LS, McRae T, Lawrence D, Russ C, Krishen A, Evins AE, West R. Estimation of risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events from varenicline, bupropion and nicotine patch versus placebo: secondary analysis of results from the EAGLES trial using Bayes factors. Addiction. 2021 Oct; 116(10):2816-2824.  View on PubMed
  9. Giratallah HK, Chenoweth MJ, Addo N, Ahluwalia JS, Cox LS, Lerman C, George TP, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Nicotine metabolite ratio: Comparison of the three urinary versions to the plasma version and nicotine clearance in three clinical studies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 06 01; 223:108708.  View on PubMed
  10. Northrup TF, Stotts AL, Suchting R, Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Khan AM, Green C, Klawans MR, Johnson M, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Hoh E, Hovell MF, Stewart CJ. Thirdhand smoke associations with the gut microbiomes of infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: An observational study. Environ Res. 2021 06; 197:111180.  View on PubMed
  11. Vogel EA, Benowitz NL, Skan J, Schnellbaecher M, Prochaska JJ. Correlates of the nicotine metabolite ratio in Alaska Native people who smoke cigarettes. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Apr 15.  View on PubMed
  12. Nides M, Rigotti NA, Benowitz N, Clarke A, Jacobs C. A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Phase 2b Trial of Cytisinicline in Adult Smokers (The ORCA-1 Trial). Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 Apr 13.  View on PubMed
  13. Prochaska JJ, Vogel EA, Benowitz N. Nicotine delivery and cigarette equivalents from vaping a JUULpod. Tob Control. 2021 Mar 24.  View on PubMed
  14. Rezk-Hanna M, Seals DR, Rossman MJ, Gupta R, Nettle CO, Means A, Dobrin D, Cheng CW, Brecht ML, Mosenifar Z, Araujo JA, Benowitz NL. Ascorbic Acid Prevents Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Electronic Hookah (Waterpipe) Vaping. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 02; 10(5):e019271.  View on PubMed
  15. Tarran R, Barr RG, Benowitz NL, Bhatnagar A, Chu HW, Dalton P, Doerschuk CM, Drummond MB, Gold DR, Goniewicz ML, Gross ER, Hansel NN, Hopke PK, Kloner RA, Mikheev VB, Neczypor EW, Pinkerton KE, Postow L, Rahman I, Samet JM, Salathe M, Stoney CM, Tsao PS, Widome R, Xia T, Xiao D, Wold LE. E-Cigarettes and Cardiopulmonary Health. Function (Oxf). 2021; 2(2):zqab004.  View on PubMed
  16. Aquilina NJ, Havel CM, Cheung P, Harrison RM, Ho KF, Benowitz NL, Jacob Iii P. Ubiquitous atmospheric contamination by tobacco smoke: Nicotine and a new marker for tobacco smoke-derived particulate matter, nicotelline. Environ Int. 2021 05; 150:106417.  View on PubMed
  17. Nollen NL, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L, Okuyemi K, Lawrence D, Samuels L, Benowitz NL. Assessment of Racial Differences in Pharmacotherapy Efficacy for Smoking Cessation: Secondary Analysis of the EAGLES Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 01 04; 4(1):e2032053.  View on PubMed
  18. Denlinger-Apte RL, White CM, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Carpenter MJ, Smith TT. "I actually finally feel like the cigarettes aren't controlling me." - Interviews with participants smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes during a residential study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 02 01; 219:108465.  View on PubMed
  19. El-Boraie A, Chenoweth MJ, Pouget JG, Benowitz NL, Fukunaga K, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Nollen NL, Sanderson Cox L, Lerman C, Knight J, Tyndale RF. Transferability of Ancestry-Specific and Cross-Ancestry CYP2A6 Activity Genetic Risk Scores in African and European Populations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Dec 09.  View on PubMed
  20. Knox M, Skan J, Benowitz NL, Schnellbaecher M, Prochaska JJ. Recruitment best practices of a cardiovascular risk reduction randomised control trial in rural Alaska Native communities. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2020 12; 79(1):1806639.  View on PubMed

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