Research Summary

I am nationally and internationally recognized as an expert on the economics of tobacco and have been conducting studies related to costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure for over 25 years. My research team was one of the first groups to develop econometric models of smoking-attributable costs, and these models represent the state-of-the-art today. We have refined and improved these models and have used them to study lifetime smoking-attributable costs, smoking-attributable costs to Medicaid and Medicare, costs to each of the states and to each of California's counties, costs to Hispanics and Blacks, and the impact of tobacco control expenditures on healthcare expenditures in California. I am involved in ongoing research studying the economic cost of secondhand smoke exposure in California, the US, and China. I am also currently working on the development of economic cost models for other tobacco products. I served as an expert witness for 12 states in litigation that the Attorneys General brought against the tobacco industry to recover Medicaid costs. I was also an expert witness for similar litigation on behalf of Blue Cross Blue Shield. I regularly present my research on the economics of tobacco at national and international conferences and at tobacco control forums, and I have testified before the California legislature. I have also conducted research related to economic effects of tobacco use on health and healthcare costs in India and China. I have mentored a number of postdoctoral fellows, including Dr. John, who studied the cost of smoking in India, Dr. Yao, who has worked with me on the economic impact of secondhand smoke in rural China and tobacco purchasing behavior in China, Dr. Lindsay who worked with me on secondhand exposure of smokers, and Dr. Chambers, who is working with me on the economic impact of tobacco policies within the context of healthcare utilization among vulnerable populations with chronic disease. I have co-authored papers with all of my fellows.

Research Funding

  • September 19, 2013 - August 31, 2018 - Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation, Co-Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NCI, Sponsor Award ID: P50CA180890
  • September 19, 2013 - August 31, 2018 - Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation, Co-Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NCI, Sponsor Award ID: P50CA180890
  • September 19, 2013 - August 31, 2018 - Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation, Co-Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NCI, Sponsor Award ID: P50CA180890
  • September 19, 2013 - August 31, 2018 - Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation, Co-Investigator. Sponsor: NIH/NCI, Sponsor Award ID: P50CA180890

Education

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, B.A., 1976, History, Economics
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, M.S., 1981, Economics
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Ph.D., 1983, Economics

Honors & Awards

  • Hal Luft Mentoring Award in Health Services and Health Policy Research, UCSF, 2012
  • Helen Nahm Research Award, UCSF, 2010
  • Honorary Visiting Professorship, Beijing Normal University, Beijing,, 2001-2006

Selected Publications

  1. Kim KM, White JS, Max W, Chapman SA, Muench U. Evaluation of Clinical and Economic Outcomes Following Implementation of a Medicare Pay-for-Performance Program for Surgical Procedures. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Aug 02; 4(8):e2121115.  View on PubMed
  2. Max W, Stark B, Sung HY, Offen N. Smoking-Attributable Doctor Visits and Emergency Room Utilization and Costs by California's Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community. J Homosex. 2021 Jun 29; 1-17.  View on PubMed
  3. Keeler C, Wang Y, Max W, Yao T, Gu D, Sung HY. The association of California's Proposition 56 tobacco tax increase with smoking behavior across racial and ethnic groups and by income. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 Jun 17.  View on PubMed
  4. Ferket BS, Hunink MGM, Masharani U, Max W, Yeboah J, Fleischmann KE. Long-term Predictions of Incident Coronary Artery Calcium to 85 Years of Age for Asymptomatic Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jun 02.  View on PubMed
  5. Wang Y, Max W, Yao T, Keeler C, Sung HY. Differential price-responsiveness of smoking behaviors among non-Hispanic African Americans and non-Hispanic whites in the United States. Addiction. 2021 10; 116(10):2859-2869.  View on PubMed
  6. Morey JR, Jiang S, Klein S, Max W, Masharani U, Fleischmann KE, Hunink MGM, Ferket BS. Estimating Long-Term Health Utility Scores and Expenditures for Cardiovascular Disease From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2021 Apr; 14(4):e006769.  View on PubMed
  7. Wang Y, Watkins SL, Sung HY, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Health Care Utilization of Menthol and Non-menthol Cigarette Smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 01 07; 23(1):195-202.  View on PubMed
  8. Limaye VS, Max W, Constible J, Knowlton K. Estimating The Costs Of Inaction And The Economic Benefits Of Addressing The Health Harms Of Climate Change. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020 12; 39(12):2098-2104.  View on PubMed
  9. Kim KM, Max W, White JS, Chapman SA, Muench U. Do penalty-based pay-for-performance programs improve surgical care more effectively than other payment strategies? A systematic review. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2020 Dec; 60:623-630.  View on PubMed
  10. Yao T, Sung HY, Huang J, Chu L, St Helen G, Max W. The impact of e-cigarette and cigarette prices on e-cigarette and cigarette sales in California. Prev Med Rep. 2020 Dec; 20:101244.  View on PubMed
  11. Watkins SL, Thrul J, Max W, Ling PM. Real-World Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Strategies for Young and Older Adults: Findings From a Nationally Representative Cohort. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 08 24; 22(9):1560-1568.  View on PubMed
  12. Watkins SL, Thrul J, Max W, Ling PM. Cold Turkey and Hot Vapes? A National Study of Young Adult Cigarette Cessation Strategies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 04 21; 22(5):638-646.  View on PubMed
  13. Keeler C, Max W, Yerger VB, Yao T, Wang Y, Ong MK, Sung HY. Effects of Cigarette Prices on Intention to Quit, Quit Attempts, and Successful Cessation Among African American Smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 04 17; 22(4):522-531.  View on PubMed
  14. Keeler C, Max W, Yao T, Wang Y, Zhang X, Sung HY. Smoking Behavior in Low- and High-Income Adults Immediately Following California Proposition 56 Tobacco Tax Increase. Am J Public Health. 2020 06; 110(6):868-870.  View on PubMed
  15. Johnson JK, Stewart AL, Acree M, Nápoles AM, Flatt JD, Max WB, Gregorich SE. A Community Choir Intervention to Promote Well-Being Among Diverse Older Adults: Results From the Community of Voices Trial. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2020 02 14; 75(3):549-559.  View on PubMed
  16. Zhang T, Ren J, Zhang X, Max W. Medical and socio-demographic characteristics associated with patient-perceived continuity of primary care: A cross-sectional survey in Hangzhou, China. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2020 Mar; 35(2):569-580.  View on PubMed
  17. Oh A, Patel K, Boscardin WJ, Max W, Stephens C, Ritchie CS, Smith AK. Social Support and Patterns of Institutionalization Among Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 12; 67(12):2622-2627.  View on PubMed
  18. Limaye VS, Max W, Constible J, Knowlton K. Estimating the Health-Related Costs of 10 Climate-Sensitive U.S. Events During 2012. Geohealth. 2019 Sep; 3(9):245-265.  View on PubMed
  19. Limaye VS, Max W, Constable J, Knowlton K. . Estimating the health-related costs of 10 climate-sensitive US events during 2012. GeoHealth. 2019; 9(3):245-265.  View on PubMed
  20. Max WB, Stark BB, Sung HY, Offen NB. Deaths from smoking and from HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in California, 2005-2050. Tob Control. 2020 05; 29(3):305-311.  View on PubMed

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