Research Summary

Since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, I have been involved in studying the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The primary model systems for these studies revolved around the study of HIV-infected macrophages and their influence on the brain, as well as in lymphoma. Through the study of HIV, I have gained important insight into the pathogenesis of other non-HIV diseases that seem to operate in the same manner as those associated with HIV infection. A critical component of the studies performed over the past 30 years was the creation of the ACSR, a central NCI-sponsored program of which I have been the PI since 1994. Access to well-preserved tissues from patients with a wide variety of AIDS-related conditions has allowed the discovery of fundamental mechanisms of disease that would never have been made otherwise. Through study of ACSR specimen sets, we have discovered that HIV-infected macrophages persist in tissues long after the blood has been cleared of infectious HIV. In fact, recent evidence suggests that infected macrophages play central roles in the pathogenesis of major post-cART diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. The current ACSR program will continue to expand investigator access to biospecimens for HIV-associated cancer research.

Research Funding

  • September 18, 2019 - August 31, 2024 - Pathogenesis of the cART unresponsive Kaposi?s sarcoma tumor niche , Principal Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: R01CA239263
  • September 23, 2013 - August 31, 2024 - AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) , Principal Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: UM1CA181255
  • September 4, 2013 - July 31, 2019 - Molecular Features of and Approach to the HIV CNS Reservoir Post cART , Principal Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: R01MH100984
  • September 13, 2002 - August 31, 2016 - AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource Central Office and Data Coordinating Center , Principal Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: U01CA096230


University of Minnesota, B.S., 1974, Biology Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine, M.D., 1980, Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine, Ph.D., 1981, Cancer Biology

Honors & Awards

  • 1990
    Outstanding Speaker Award, American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • 1999-2000
    Mercatur Scholar, University of Heidelberg, Germany

Selected Publications

  1. McGrath MS, Zhang R, Bracci PM, Azhir A, Forrest BD. Regulation of the Innate Immune System as a Therapeutic Approach to Supporting Respiratory Function in ALS. Cells. 2023 03 28; 12(7).  View on PubMed
  2. Nolan DJ, Rose R, Zhang R, Leong A, Fogel GB, Scholte LLS, Bethony JM, Bracci P, Lamers SL, McGrath MS. The Persistence of HIV Diversity, Transcription, and Nef Protein in Kaposi's Sarcoma Tumors during Antiretroviral Therapy. Viruses. 2022 12 13; 14(12).  View on PubMed
  3. Zhang R, Bracci PM, Azhir A, Forrest BD, McGrath MS. Macrophage-Targeted Sodium Chlorite (NP001) Slows Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) through Regulation of Microbial Translocation. Biomedicines. 2022 Nov 12; 10(11).  View on PubMed
  4. Miller RG, Zhang R, Bracci PM, Azhir A, Barohn R, Bedlack R, Benatar M, Berry JD, Cudkowicz M, Kasarskis EJ, Mitsumoto H, Manousakis G, Walk D, Oskarsson B, Shefner J, McGrath MS. Phase 2B randomized controlled trial of NP001 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Pre-specified and post hoc analyses. Muscle Nerve. 2022 07; 66(1):39-49.  View on PubMed
  5. Markazi A, Meng W, Bracci PM, McGrath MS, Gao SJ. The Role of Bacteria in KSHV Infection and KSHV-Induced Cancers. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Aug 25; 13(17).  View on PubMed
  6. Markazi A, Bracci PM, McGrath M, Gao SJ. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stimulates Inflammation and Enhances Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus-Induced Cell Proliferation and Cellular Transformation through both Lipopolysaccharide and Flagellin. mBio. 2020 11 10; 11(6).  View on PubMed
  7. Ljubenkov PA, Miller Z, Mumford P, Zhang J, Allen IE, Mitic L, Staffaroni A, Heuer H, Rojas JC, Cobigo Y, Karydas A, Pearlman R, Miller B, Kramer JH, McGrath MS, Rosen HJ, Boxer AL. Peripheral Innate Immune Activation Correlates With Disease Severity in GRN Haploinsufficiency. Front Neurol. 2019; 10:1004.  View on PubMed
  8. Maguire A, Chen X, Wisner L, Malasi S, Ramsower C, Kendrick S, Barrett MT, Glinsmann-Gibson B, McGrath M, Rimsza LM. Enhanced DNA repair and genomic stability identify a novel HIV-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma signature. Int J Cancer. 2019 12 01; 145(11):3078-3088.  View on PubMed
  9. Lamers SL, Fogel GB, Nolan DJ, Barbier AE, Rose R, Singer EJ, Gonzalez-Perez MP, McGrath MS. Emerging Patterns in HIV-1 gp120 Variable Domains in Anatomical Tissues in the Absence of a Plasma Viral Load. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2019 06; 35(6):588-596.  View on PubMed
  10. Jin X, Xu H, McGrath MS. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone inhibits osteopontin expression and differentiation in cultured human monocytes. PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0192680.  View on PubMed
  11. Nolan DJ, Rose R, Rodriguez PH, Salemi M, Singer EJ, Lamers SL, McGrath MS. The Spleen Is an HIV-1 Sanctuary During Combined Antiretroviral Therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018 01; 34(1):123-125.  View on PubMed
  12. Lamers SL, Fogel GB, Liu ES, Barbier AE, Rodriguez CW, Singer EJ, Nolan DJ, Rose R, McGrath MS. Brain-specific HIV Nef identified in multiple patients with neurological disease. J Neurovirol. 2018 02; 24(1):1-15.  View on PubMed
  13. Rose R, Nolan DJ, Maidji E, Stoddart CA, Singer EJ, Lamers SL, McGrath MS. Eradication of HIV from Tissue Reservoirs: Challenges for the Cure. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018 01; 34(1):3-8.  View on PubMed
  14. Nolan DJ, Lamers SL, Rose R, Dollar JJ, Salemi M, McGrath MS. Single Genome Sequencing of Expressed and Proviral HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein 120 (gp120) and nef Genes. Bio Protoc. 2017 Jun 20; 7(12):e2334.  View on PubMed
  15. Lakritz JR, Yalamanchili S, Polydefkis MJ, Miller AD, McGrath MS, Williams KC, Burdo TH. An oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone reduces monocyte activation and traffic to the dorsal root ganglia in a primate model of HIV-peripheral neuropathy. J Neurovirol. 2017 08; 23(4):568-576.  View on PubMed
  16. Walker JA, Miller AD, Burdo TH, McGrath MS, Williams KC. Direct Targeting of Macrophages With Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanylhydrazone Decreases SIV-Associated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Pathology. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 04 15; 74(5):583-592.  View on PubMed
  17. Lamers SL, Fogel GB, Liu ES, Nolan DJ, Salemi M, Barbier AE, Rose R, Singer EJ, McGrath MS. Predicted coreceptor usage at end-stage HIV disease in tissues derived from subjects on antiretroviral therapy with an undetectable plasma viral load. Infect Genet Evol. 2017 07; 51:194-197.  View on PubMed
  18. Cope FO, Abbruzzese B, Sanders J, Metz W, Sturms K, Ralph D, Blue M, Zhang J, Bracci P, Bshara W, Behr S, Maurer T, Williams K, Walker J, Beverly A, Blay B, Damughatla A, Larsen M, Mountain C, Neylon E, Parcel K, Raghuraman K, Ricks K, Rose L, Sivakumar A, Streck N, Wang B, Wasco C, Williams A, Schlesinger LS, Azad A, Rajaram MVS, Jarjour W, Young N, Rosol T, McGrath M. Corrigendum to the inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach [Nucl Med Biol 43 (2016) 215-225]. Nucl Med Biol. 2016 12; 43(12):837.  View on PubMed
  19. Lamers SL, Rose R, Maidji E, Agsalda-Garcia M, Nolan DJ, Fogel GB, Salemi M, Garcia DL, Bracci P, Yong W, Commins D, Said J, Khanlou N, Hinkin CH, Sueiras MV, Mathisen G, Donovan S, Shiramizu B, Stoddart CA, McGrath MS, Singer EJ. HIV DNA Is Frequently Present within Pathologic Tissues Evaluated at Autopsy from Combined Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Patients with Undetectable Viral Loads. J Virol. 2016 10 15; 90(20):8968-83.  View on PubMed
  20. Rose R, Lamers SL, Nolan DJ, Maidji E, Faria NR, Pybus OG, Dollar JJ, Maruniak SA, McAvoy AC, Salemi M, Stoddart CA, Singer EJ, McGrath MS. HIV Maintains an Evolving and Dispersed Population in Multiple Tissues during Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in Individuals with Cancer. J Virol. 2016 10 15; 90(20):8984-93.  View on PubMed

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