Research Funding

  • September 19, 2013 - June 30, 2023 - Integrated Health, Behavioral and Economic Research on Current and Emerging Tobacco Products , Co-Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: 9U54HL147127-06
  • August 15, 2018 - July 31, 2022 - Cigarette Harm Reduction with Scheduled Electronic Cigarette Use , Co-Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: U01DA045519
  • June 1, 2016 - May 31, 2017 - Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Cigarettes , Co-Investigator . Sponsor: NIH, Sponsor Award ID: 3R01DA039264-02S1


Livingstone College, Salisbury, NC, B.S., 05/2006, Biology
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, Ph.D., 08/2011, Toxicology
University of California, San Francisco, CA, Postdoc, 12/2014, Tobacco Control and Research

Honors & Awards

  • 2003-2006
    Academic Gold Medal, Livingstone College
  • 2006
    Summer Bridge Fellow, University of Georgia
  • 2012
    Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Travel Award
  • 2012
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Top-Ten Research Article

Selected Publications

  1. Jacob P, Chan L, Cheung P, Bello K, Yu L, StHelen G, Benowitz NL. Minor Tobacco Alkaloids as Biomarkers to Distinguish Combusted Tobacco Use From Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Use. Two New Analytical Methods. Front Chem. 2022; 10:749089.  View on PubMed
  2. Chaffee BW, Halpern-Felsher B, Jacob P, St Helen G. Biomarkers of nicotine exposure correlate with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist among adolescents in California, United States. Addict Behav. 2022 05; 128:107235.  View on PubMed
  3. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Liakoni E. Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Implications for Benefits and Risks in the Promotion of the Combusted Tobacco Endgame. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 08; 61 Suppl 2:S18-S36.  View on PubMed
  4. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Zhang JJ, Harvanko AM, Calfee CS, Jacob P. Twenty-Four-Hour Cardiovascular Effects of Electronic Cigarettes Compared With Cigarette Smoking in Dual Users. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 12; 9(23):e017317.  View on PubMed
  5. Yao T, Sung HY, Huang J, Chu L, St Helen G, Max W. The impact of e-cigarette and cigarette prices on e-cigarette and cigarette sales in California. Prev Med Rep. 2020 Dec; 20:101244.  View on PubMed
  6. Carroll DM, Cigan S, Ikuemonisan J, Hammonds T, Stepanov I, St Helen G, Benowitz N, Hatsukami DK. Relationships Between Race, Gender, and Spot Urine Levels of Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure Vary Based on How Creatinine Is Handled in Analyses. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 10 29; 22(11):2109-2113.  View on PubMed
  7. Kovar L, Selzer D, Britz H, Benowitz N, St Helen G, Kohl Y, Bals R, Lehr T. Comprehensive Parent-Metabolite PBPK/PD Modeling Insights into Nicotine Replacement Therapy Strategies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020 09; 59(9):1119-1134.  View on PubMed
  8. St Helen G. A ban targeting only open-system e-cigarettes is unlikely to prevent a future EVALI-like outbreak among e-cigarette users. Addiction. 2021 05; 116(5):995-997.  View on PubMed
  9. Liakoni E, Nardone N, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Cigarette Reinforcement. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 07 16; 22(8):1419-1423.  View on PubMed
  10. Jacob P, St Helen G, Yu L, Nardone N, Havel C, Cheung P, Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of Exposure for Dual Use of Electronic Cigarettes and Combustible Cigarettes: Nicotelline, NNAL, and Total Nicotine Equivalents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 06 12; 22(7):1107-1113.  View on PubMed
  11. Harvanko AM, St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Benowitz NL. Twenty-four-hour subjective and pharmacological effects of ad-libitum electronic and combustible cigarette use among dual users. Addiction. 2020 06; 115(6):1149-1159.  View on PubMed
  12. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Nardone N, Cox LS, Jacob P. Urine Metabolites for Estimating Daily Intake of Nicotine From Cigarette Smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 02 06; 22(2):288-292.  View on PubMed
  13. St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Dempsey D, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Differences in nicotine intake and effects from electronic and combustible cigarettes among dual users. Addiction. 2020 04; 115(4):757-767.  View on PubMed
  14. Nardone N, Jain S, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Sources and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2020 May - Jun; 20(4):493-500.  View on PubMed
  15. St Helen G, Liakoni E, Nardone N, Addo N, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Comparison of Systemic Exposure to Toxic and/or Carcinogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) during Vaping, Smoking, and Abstention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 02; 13(2):153-162.  View on PubMed
  16. Benowitz N, Nardone N, St Helen G, Addo N, Jacob P, Liakoni E, Jain S, Hooshfar S, Lynch K. Quantitative biochemical screening for marijuana use and concordance with tobacco use in urban adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 12 01; 205:107583.  View on PubMed
  17. Liakoni E, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Relationship between skin melanin index and nicotine pharmacokinetics in African American smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 11 01; 204:107474.  View on PubMed
  18. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Ko J, Jacob P, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Murphy SE, Hecht SS, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Differences in exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds between Black and White cigarette smokers. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2021 03; 31(2):211-223.  View on PubMed
  19. Nardone N, Helen GS, Addo N, Meighan S, Benowitz NL. JUUL electronic cigarettes: Nicotine exposure and the user experience. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 10 01; 203:83-87.  View on PubMed
  20. Stroud L, Werner E, Matteson K, Carey M, Helen GS, Eissenberg T, Scott-Sheldon LAJ. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco use in pregnancy: use, preferences and perceptions of flavours. Tob Control. 2020 02; 29(Suppl 2):s62-s71.  View on PubMed

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